The Effect of Storage Time on The Quality of Common Carp Sperm (Cyprinus carpio) Strain Punten in NaCL Solution and Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) Extender


  • Ade Triandari Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Ajeng Hanum Isna Hapsari Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Rossdannisa Iskandar Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Aris Soewondo Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Sri Rahayu Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia



Cocos nucifera, Cyprinus carpio, preservation, sperm quality


Cyprinus carpio is a freshwater species with high reproduction and adaptability. These factors make C. carpio being the freshwater fish that majority distributed and has high commercial value in some countries, including Indonesia. The maturation phase of male and female fish gonads does not occur simultaneously. Thus, sperm preservation could be an alternative technique to maintain the breeding process throughout the year. This research aims to determine the effect of storage time on C. carpio sperm quality strain Punten in NaCl solution-coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.). This study used common carp (C. carpio) 8 months of age with 500 The C. carpio semen sample was divided into four treatment groups (0, 3, 6, and 9-hour storage time). The extender used in this research was composed of coconut water (C. nucifera L.) and NaCl solution with a ratio of 70% : 30%. The samples were stored in a refrigerator at 5oC. Fresh sperm sample was analyzed macroscopically using various parameters, such as pH, volume, color, and consistency. Meanwhile, the post-preserved sperm quality sample was analyzed microscopically (motility, viability, concentration, and abnormality). Furthermore, we also obtained the fertilization rate and hatching rate. The result showed that storage time affects the reduction of C. carpio sperm quality significantly (p<0.05). The highest sperm viability was obtained in NaCl solution-Cocos nucifera with a 3-hour storage time (78.33%±5.49). Our study found that the storage time significantly affected the sperm quality of C. carpio that was given with C. nucifera extender. Adding C. nucifera with 3,6,9 hour storage time also increases the fertilization and hatching rate compared with the group without C. nucifera. It can be shown that the addition of C. nucifera as a natural extender has the essential role of maintaining C. carpio sperm quality after a short storage period.


Xu P, Zhang X, Wang X, Li J, Liu G, Kuang Y, Xu J, Zheng X, Ren L, Wang G, Zhang Y, Huo L, Zhao Z, Cao D, Lu C, Li C, Zhou Y, Liu Z, Fan Z, Shan G, Li X, Wu S, Song L, Hou G, Jiang Y, Jeney Z, Yu D, Wang L, Shao C, Song L, Sun J, Ji P, Wang J, Li Q, Xu L, Sun F, Feng J, Wang C, Wang S, Wang B, Li Y, Zhu Y, Xue W, Zhao L, Wang J, Gu Y, Lv W, Wu K, Xiao J, Wu J, Zhang Z, Yu J, Sun X (2014) Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Nat Genet. 46(11): 1212-9.

Budhiman A (2007) Freshwater fish seed resources in Indonesia. In: Bondad-Reantaso M (eds) Assessment of freshwater fish seed resources for sustainable aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, pp 329-341.

Cheng Y, Zhang S, Linhartová Z, Shazada NE, Linhart O (2022) Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm reduction during short-term in vitro storage at 4 °C. Anim Reprod Sci. 43: 107017.

Cheng Y, Vechtova P, Fussy Z, Sterba J, Linhartova Z, Rodina M, Tuckova V, Gela D, Samarin AM, Lebeda I, Xin M, Zhang S, Rahi D, Linhart O (2021) Changes in phenotypes and DNA methylation of in vitro aging sperm in common carp Cyprinus carpio. Int J Mol Sci 22(11): 5925.

Untsa AT, Ganjar AS, Riza RH (2019) Simple storage of sperm cells using combination of coconut and glycerol water towards motility and viability of Koi sperm (Cyprinus Carpio). Indonesian Journal of Tropical Aquatic 2(1): 25-32.

Budi DS, Adawiyah LA, Lutfiyah L (2019) Preservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm using 0,9% NaCl and ringer’s lactate solution. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 236: 1-3.

Zulfadhli, Ruslan, Saputra F (2020) Penggunaan air kelapa muda dan madu terhadap kualitas sperma ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio) selama masa penyimpanan. Jurnal Akuakultura 4(1): 11-16.

Nurfitrih, Nilawati J, Tis’in M (2023) Pengaruh konsentrasi larutan madu dalam NaCl fisiologis terhadap motilitas dan viabilitas spermatozoa ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio L.). Jurnal Trofish 2(1): 5-12.

Handoko KJ, Ducha N, Purnomo T (2018) Pengaruh macam media pengencer terhadap motilitas spermatozoa ikan tombro (Cyprinus carpio) selama penyimpanan pada suhu 4-5°C. LenteraBio 7(1): 92-98.

Anabella NA, Abinawanto, Subagja J, Arifin OZ, Muhiardi I, Arief MZ (2020) The motility of Tor soro fish (Valenciennes, 1842) using post cryopreservation sperm: the effect of grape juice (Vitis vinifera) as a natural antioxidant. International Conference on Fisheries and Marine 584: 1-8.

Mohamad I, Bhat FA, Balkhi MH, Shah TH, Bhat BA, Wali A (2018) Effect of extenders and storage periods on the motility performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. communis sperms in Kashmir Himalaya. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(6): 2116-2118.

Ogretmen F, Inanan BE, Kutluyer F, Kayim M (2015) Effect of semen extender supplementation with cysteine on postthaw sperm quality, DNA damage, and fertilizing ability in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Theriogenology 83(9): 1548-52.

Anna Shaliutina-Kolesova, Rui Nian (2022) Motility and oxidative stress of common carp Cyprinus carpio sperm during short-term storage. Animal Reproduction Science 241: 1-10.

Savitri DA, Ducha N (2022) Perbandingan kualitas spermatozoa ikan lele masamo (Clarias sp.) pada media pengencer yang berbeda selama penyimpanan pada 4-5°C. LenteraBio 11(3): 545-553.

Bustani GS, Baiee FH (2021) Semen extenders: an evaluative overview of preservative mechanisms of semen and semen extenders. Vet World. 14(5): 1220-1233.

Mat K, Abdul Kari Z, Rusli ND, Che Harun H, Wei LS, Rahman MM, Mohd Khalid HN, Mohd Ali Hanafiah MH, Mohamad Sukri SA, Raja Khalif RIA, Mohd Zin Z, Mohd Zainol MK, Panadi M, Mohd Nor MF, Goh KW (2022) Coconut palm: food, feed, and nutraceutical properties. Animals (Basel) 12(16): 2107.

Salim, MA, Ihsan MN, Isnaini N, Susilawati T (2020) Kidding rate of artificial insemination with Boer goat liquid semen during chilled preservation using coconut water-based diluent. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 30(3): 184-189.

Handayani LS, Muchlisin ZA, Eriani K, Maulida S, Rahayu SR, Nur FM (2022) Exploration of the natural extender for dilution of walking catfish Clarias batrachus sperm in refrigerated storage. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1221(012010).

Cabrita E, Sarasquete C, Martinez Paramo S, Robles V, Beirao J, Perez Cerezales S, Herraez M (2010) Cryopreservation of fish sperm: applications and perspectives. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26: 623-35

Fanaei H, Khayat S, Halvaei I, Ramezani V, Azizi Y, Kasaeian A, Mardaneh J, Parvizi MR, Akrami M (2014) Effects of ascorbic acid on sperm motility, viability, acrosome reaction and DNA integrity in teratozoospermic samples. Iran J Reprod Med. 12(2): 03-10.

Felix F, Oliveira CCV, Cabrita E (2020) Antioxidants in fish sperm and the potential role of melatonin. Antioxidants 10(36): 1-29.

Devianti H, Alawi H, Aryani N (2016) The effect extender of young coconut water in 0,9% sodium chloride on sperm quality catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus) during storage. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Riau 3(1): 1-8.

Butts I, Sayyed M, Ali M, Trevor E (2013) Physiological functions of osmolality and calcium ions on the initiation of sperm motility and swimming performance in redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 166(1): 147-157.

Kumari K, Maurye P (2021) Cryopreservation in aquaculture. Advances in Fisheries Biotechnology 1: 183-195.

Rahayu S, Annisa R, Anzila I, Christina YI, Soewondo A, Marhendra APW, Djati MS (2021) Marsilea crenata ethanol extract prevents monosodium glutamate adverse effects on the serum levels of reproductive hormones, sperm quality, and testis histology in male rats. Veterinary World 14(6): 1529-1536.

Firstiantono A (2022) Combination of Marsilea crenata and Curcuma xanthorriza to improve sperm quality of male mice exposed by monosodium glutamate. Biotropika: Journal of Tropical Biology 10(1): 33-39.

Dascanio JJ (2014) Hemocytometer evaluation of concentration. In: Dascanio JJ McCue PM (eds) Equine reproductive procedures. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, pp 360-362.

Dupamana H, Muharam A, Juliana (2020) Effect of substrate on egg hatchability and survival of carp species. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan 8(2): 37-40.

Nainggolan R, Monijung RD, Mingkid W (2015) Penambahan madu dalam pengenceran sperma untuk motilitas spermatozoa, fertilisasi dan daya tetas telur ikan nila. Jurnal Budidaya Perairan 3(1): 131-140.

Lismawati N, Hendri A, Mahendra (2016) Fertilisasi dan daya tetas telur ikan tawes (Puntius javanicus) dari sperma pasca penyimpanan pada temperatur 4°C. Jurnal Perikanan Tropis 3(1): 77-84.

Safri, Lahming, Patang (2020) Pengaruh penggunaan substrat dengan warna yang berbeda pada pemijahan ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio). Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi Pertanian 6 (2): 227-336.

Rohmah Q, Santoso H, Zayadi H (2020) Pengaruh kombinasi bahan pengencer air kelapa, kuning telur dan gliserol terhadap normalitas spermatozoa ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L). e-Jurnal Ilmiah Sains Alami (Known Nature) 2(2): 28-38.

Kurniawan IY, Basuki F, Susilowati T (2013) Penambahan air kelapa dan gliserol pada penyimpanan sperma terhadap motilitas dan fertilitas spermatozoa ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L.). Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology 2(1): 51-65.

Tumanung S, Sinjal HJ, Watung JC (2015) Penambahan madu dalam pengenceran spermatozoa untuk meningkatkan motilitas, fertilisasi, dan daya tetas telur ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L.). Jurnal Budidaya Perairan 3(1): 51-58.

Faqih A (2013) Ikan nilem transgenik. Malang, UB Press.

Liu S, Yuqing Su, Huadong Yi, Xiaoli C, Han L, Sheng Bi, Yong Z, Xiaopin Z, Guaifeng L (2022) Effect of short-term storage on sperm functional parameters in sex-reversed female mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). Aquaculture 547: 1-8.

Dietrich MA, Sylwia J, Mariola S, Natalia K, Andrzej C (2021) Short-term storage-induced changes in the proteome of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa. Aquaculture 530: 1-22.

Soeprijanto A, Aisyah D, Amrillah AM, Ramadhani AW (2022) Fisiologi reproduksi ikan dan hewan air. Malang, UB Press.

Rahardhianto A, Abdulgani N, Trisyani N (2012) Pengaruh konsentrasi larutan madu dalam NaCl fisiologis terhadap viabilitas dan motilitas spermatozoa ikan patin (Pangasius pangasius) selama masa penyimpanan. Jurnal Sains dan Seni ITS 1(1): 58-63.

Amaral A, Lourenço B, Marques M, Ramalho-Santos J (2013) Mitochondria functionality and sperm quality. Reproduction. 146: R163–R174

Odrada PM, Purnamasari L, Cruz JF (2023) The effects of water-based coconut extenders on semen preservation: a review. Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia 18(1): 1-7.

Zulaikhah ST (2019) Health benefits of tender coconut water (TCW). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 10 (2): 474-480.

Shazada NE, Sayyed MH, Mohammad AM, Yu C, Songpei Z, Marek R, Martin K, Otomar L (2022) Short-term storage of sperm in common carp from laboratory research to commercial production—A review. Reviews in Aquaculture 1-16.

Faqih AR (2011) Penurunan motilitas dan daya fertilitas sperma ikan lele dumbo (Clarias spp.) pasca perlakuan stress kejutan listrik. Journal of Experimental Life Science 1(2): 56-110.

Psenicka M, Marek R, Martin F, Vojtech K, Otomar L (2009) Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa. Fish Physiol Biochem 35: 591-597.

Galo JM, Streit-Junior DP, Oliveira CA, Povh JP, Fornari DC, Digmayer M, Ribeiro RP (2019) Quality of fresh and cryopreserved semen and their influence on the rates of fertilization, hatching and quality of the larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus. Brazilian Journal of Biology 79(3): 438-445.

Harlis WO, Adi DA, Hamundu LOR, Resman (2015) Epididymis sperm morphology mice (Mus musculus L.) after administration of herbal extracts beluntas (Pluchea indica Less) In Proceedings of the Celebes International Conference on Diversity of Wallaceas Line, 237-240.

Hayati A, Wulansari E, Armando DS, Sofiyanti A, Amin MHF, Pramudya M (2019) Effects of in vitro exposure of mercury on sperm quality and fertility of tropical fish Cyprinus carpio L. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 45: 189-195.

Fariedah F, Inalya I, Rani Y, Ayunin Q, Evi T (2018) Penggunaan tanah liat untuk keberhasilan pemijahan ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan 10(2): 91-94.

Pertiwi P, Abinawanto A, Yimastria S (2018) Fertilization rate of Lukas fish (Puntius bramoides), In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Current Progress in Mathematics and Sciences, pp 1-4.

Devi OS, Susilowati T, Nugroho RA (2019) Pengaruh penambahan madu dengan dosis berbeda dalam media pengencer NaCl fisiologis terhadap kualitas sperma ikan tawes. Jurnal Sains Akuakultur Tropis 3(2): 21-30.

Lodo SM, Tjendawangi A, Linggi Y (2023) Pengaruh kombinasi air kelapa muda dan gliserol pada preservasi sperma ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio). Jurnal Aquatik 6(1): 114-120.

Pangaribuan, HR, Sukendi, Hamdan A (2020) Pengaruh penambahan air kelapa muda pada NaCl terhadap kualitas spermatozoa ikan lele Sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus) selama masa penyimpanan. Jurnal Online Mahasiswa 1-13.

Junior ASV, Corcini CD, Gheller SMM, Jardim RD, Lucia Jr. T, Streit Jr. DP, Figueiredo MRC (2012) Use of amides as cryoprotectants in extenders for frozen sperm of tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. Theriogenology 78: 244-251.